Health

Child vaccination schedule in Mexico by age


The vaccinations They are the medical treatment that has the greatest beneficial impact on health, since they prevent diseases, reduce costs of drug treatments and hospitalizations, and reduce serious cases of illness and death. Therefore, it is very important vaccinate your child at the indicated age of each vaccine and administer their corresponding boosters. If you live in Mexico, this interests you! We give you the Child vaccination schedule in Mexico by age.

Mexico has a vaccination record very acceptable, although some are missing that are in the plans to be included for the entire population (Varicella and Hepatitis A), with which the scheme would remain among one of the most complete vaccination schemes worldwide.

One pride of the Ministry of Health is the high percentage of population vaccination, which helps us a lot to have less and less of all these diseases that, as you will see below, can have fatal complications.

It is important to apply all vaccines of the national vaccination scheme, since they cover different diseases. Next, we will talk to you about the vaccines offered by the health sector for free to all children in Mexico.

1. BCG (Tuberculosis)
It has this name, Bacilos de Calmette GueruĂ­n, in honor of the researchers responsible for creating this vaccine. It must be applied at birth and does not require reinforcements. The main purpose of the vaccine is to pprotect against severe extrapulmonary forms of tuberculosis, such as meningitis and disseminated tuberculosis. In developing countries, cases have decreased, but there is still a risk of contagion.

2. Hepatitis B
It is applied at birth and with two boosters at 2 and 6 months. The importance of applying this vaccine from birth is to avoid transmission from the mother to the baby, since the contagion could occur during delivery, so the vaccine should ideally be applied in the unit where the baby is born.

They have two boosters, since the virus can be transmitted through breast milk, the mother could be asymptomatic and be a carrier. Hepatitis B virus infection causes acute and chronic infections, which can lead to liver failure.

3. Acellular pentavalent
This vaccine is given at 2, 4, 6 and 18 months of age. It bears that name because it is the conjunction of 5 vaccines in one that are:

- Haemophilus influenzae B. This bacterium causes diseases at the level of the central nervous system (meninges): pneumonia, pericarditis and osteoarthritis. This virus is responsible for viral conditions with nonspecific symptoms such as headache, fever, general malaise, diarrhea and sore throat, but it can also cause neurological symptoms with severe headache.

Most cases recover without leaving sequelae, but in 1 to 2% the sequela of paralysis may remain with the complication of neurological injury; if the neurological injury is in the respiratory center, it can be fatal.

It was eradicated from the American continent since 1994, however, it is very important to continue vaccinating to prevent this disease, since there are still countries in Africa and Asia where the virus has not been eradicated and could be imported and cause an epidemic. This vaccine also protects against three other diseases: DPT Diphtheria, Fair Cough, and Tetanus.

- Diphtheria it has been decreasing in the world thanks to vaccination, but there were some outbreaks in 2000 in Colombia with 12 cases and, 2002, with 38 cases in Paraguay. It is caused by a bacterium called Corynebacterium diphteriae and it creates a tissue destruction in the nose and pharynx that produces a membrane; it can then be absorbed into the bloodstream and there is a risk of complications with myocarditis (inflammation of the heart muscle) and neuritis (inflammation of the central nervous system).

The most frequent form of manifestation is moderate fever and general malaise and irritability; later, the characteristic lesions of grayish membranes appear in the pharynx and nose that can invade the lower respiratory system, causing pneumonia and difficulty in breathing. The initial symptoms are very nonspecific and the disease may be advanced when the cause is evident, hence the importance of prevent it with vaccination.

- Tetanus It is a vaccine-preventable disease, since it only occurs in unvaccinated people or with an inadequate vaccination schedule. There is no natural immunity against tetanus, so the neonatal form occurs in children of unvaccinated mothers who are born in poor hygiene conditions.

It is caused by Clostridium Tetani, a bacterium that produces toxins, one of them a neurotoxin that is potentially lethal. He Tetanus It is not contagious from person to person, but it is acquired from places or instruments contaminated with spores of the tetanus bacillus.

It has local forms with contracture of the affected local muscles and the most common form is generalized in 80% of cases, where there are contractures of all the muscles of the body, affecting swallowing and chewing.

The most serious complications can be respiratory tract infections, respiratory dysfunction due to paroxysm of the respiratory muscles (laryngospasm), cerebral edema, phlebitis, and fractures. 500,000 people die each year from tetanus worldwide.

- Whooping cough. Before 1940 it was the main cause of serious illness and death in children, with vaccination that panorama has changed a lot and for the better.

This disease causes pictures of persistent cough for more than 2 weeks, vomiting due to coughing, hemorrhages in the conjunctiva of the eye and significant pauses in breathing, it still mainly affects children from 0 to 4 years old. Serious complications of the disease are pneumonia or brain injury. Overall mortality is 1 in every 250 cases.

For these last three diseases - whooping cough, tetanus and diphtherin - it is necessary to give a DPT booster at 4 years of age, to avoid partial immunization.

4. Rotavirus
The rotavirus vaccine applies at 2, 4 and 6 months of age. This is the most common cause of vomiting diarrhea and fever in children. There are studies that suggest that by 5 years of age all individuals will have had at least one rotavirus infection.

The mortality associated with this disease is about 440 thousand children a year, the majority in the African continent, Asia and, to a lesser extent, in some developing areas of Latin America. In Latin America annually, 30% of emergency consultations for acute diarrhea in children under 3 years of age are for this cause.

5. Pneumococcus
The frequency of pneumococcal infections is still very high and the major complications are pneumonia and meningitis. The risk factors for invasive disease are chronic diseases, smokers, day care attendance, over 65 years. It also produces another time of diseases such as otitis media, sinusitis, conjunctivitis and exacerbations of chronic bronchitis.

The vaccination schedule in Mexico is: 2, 4 and 12 months. In the private sector, another booster dose is offered at 6 months, greatly reducing the risk of disease complicated by this organism.

6. Influenza
It is a highly infectious viral disease, even with high rates of complications and mortality in very young children as well as in older adults. Epidemics occur from December to March in the northern hemisphere and from June to September in the southern hemisphere; in tropical and subtropical areas they can occur throughout the year.

This virus produces annual epidemics with a high rate of involvement in the community. It is estimated that 10% of the world's population suffers from infection during the period of virus circulation. The most common manifestations are flu, that is, like a cold, but with much stronger and longer-lasting symptoms, and it is also responsible for many episodes of otitis media.

The most serious and deadly complication is pneumonia, which is more serious and frequent at the extremes of life, especially in older adults and in patients with diabetes.

7. SRP
This vaccine covers rubella, measles, and mumps. It should be applied at one year of age and at 6 years of age, which is why many know them as the MMR vaccine.

8. HPV
The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine protects against the types of this virus that are responsible for causing cervical cancer most often. This virus is also associated with other types of cancer, such as vaginal, penile, vulvar, anal, mouth and throat cancers, and is also responsible for causing genital warts.

The goal of this vaccine is to protect against cancer, but it does not treat these cancers once they have occurred. In Mexico it is applied at 11 years of age or in the fifth grade of primary school and consists of two doses, the second is applied 6 months apart from the initial one.

9. OPV
It is a reinforcement of the polio vaccine, which is applied in the pentavalent and its objective is to reinforce the previous one. It is applied in national health campaigns up to 5 years of age.

In order to have good coverage and to be able to eradicate these diseases from the country and later from the continent and the world, the government's effort to supply vaccines is very important and it is just as important that people learn about the benefits of vaccines so that they accept and seek to have all the vaccines applied and thus less risk of diseases.

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Video: Dr. Vivek Jain discusses the topic - National Immunization Schedule, India 2019-20 Hinglish (October 2021).